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For the most part William continued to govern through the sheriffs and the courts of the shire and of the hundred.

The national levy of the fyrd was retained, and it helped to render the king less dependent upon his vassals.

The whole country from York to Durham was laid waste, and we learn, for example, from the Domesday Book , that in the district of Amunderness, where there had been sixty-two villages in the Confessor's time, there were in 1087 but sixteen, and these with a vastly reduced population.

Neither was this the only instance of such ruthless severity.

The repudiation of this oath by Harold at the Confessor's death enabled William to assume the character of an avenger of perjury. Davis, "raised the English to that level of culture which the continental people had already reached and left it for the Plantagenets of Anjou to make England in her turn 'a leader among nations'." After the invasion and the decisive battle of Hastings, William at once marched on London, and there the best and wisest men of the kingdom—for example, such influential prelates as Aldred, Archbishop of York, and St.

He was probably sincere enough in believing himself constituted by God champion of the Church, and in obtaining from Pope Alexander II not only a blessing on his enterprise, but the gift of a specially consecrated banner as for a religious crusade. Oman) that the claim to establish a better order of things was in fact justified by the event. Wulstan, Bishop or Worcester &151; came in and tendered submission.

In 1035 Robert set out upon a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, in which he died.He seems to have been a youth of clean life and of much natural piety, while the years of storm and stress through which he passed gave him an endurance and far-sighted resolution of character which lasted to his life's end.In 1047 a serious rebellion of nobles occurred, and William with the aid of Henry, King of France, gained a great victory at Val-ès-Dunes, near Caen, which led, the following year, to the capture of the two strong castles of Alençon and Domfront.William met these attempts intrepidly, but sternly.In Northumbria, after the second insurrection, he inflicted a terrible vengeance.

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