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Catalonia played a prominent role in the history of Republican Spain and in the Civil War (1936–39).

The Nationalists’ victory in 1939 meant the loss of autonomy, however, and Gen.

The manufacturing sector underwent rapid expansion and diversification since the 1950s, however, and metalworking, food-processing, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries had overtaken textiles in importance by the 21st century.

Textile, papermaking and graphic arts, chemicals, and metalworking industries are concentrated in Barcelona; Sabadell and Terrassa are also textile centres.

The autonomous community of Catalonia is the richest and most highly industrialized part of Spain.

By 1913 Catalonia had won a slight degree of autonomy, but the legislation conferring it was repealed in 1925 by Esquerra Republicana.To the southwest the Ebro basin gives way to coastal hills separating the Catalonian province of Tarragona from the Valencian province of Castellón. The Catalanides have historically separated the industrial towns of the coast from the predominantly agricultural settlements of the hinterlands.The autonomous community of Catalonia was established by the statute of autonomy of December 18, 1979. North of the Catalanides is a high tableland that comprises most of Lleida province.In the War of the Spanish Succession, Catalonia declared its support for the archduke Charles and resisted the accession of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain, but in 1714 it was completely subjugated by the forces of the Bourbon Philip V, who abolished the Catalan constitution and autonomy. Catalan nationalism became a serious force after 1876, when the defeat of the Carlists led the church to transfer its support to the movement for autonomy.Catalan nationalism had two major strands: a conservative, Roman Catholic one and a more liberal, secular one.

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