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national survey found triclosan in the urine of the majority of people tested (Calafat et al. Other studies have measured triclosan in the urine of pregnant women (Meeker et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 73–2979, PMID: 15273108, 10.1128/AAC.48.8.2973-2979.2004. Sci Total Environ 32–167, PMID: 18207219, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Snail bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyltriclosan in a North Texas, USA, stream affected by wastewater treatment plant runoff. Disruption of blastocyst implantation by triclosan in mice: Impacts of repeated and acute doses and combination with bisphenol-A. J Appl Toxicol 5–311, PMID: 21462230, 10.1002/jat.1660. Environ Toxicol Chem 8–976, PMID: 25546022, 10.1002/etc.2854. Food Chem Toxicol 5–129, PMID: 17011099, 10.1016/20. Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/110 of 27 January 2016 not Approving Triclosan as an Existing Active Substance for Use in Biocidal Products for Product-type 1. Environ Health Perspect 161–1268, PMID: 26908126, 10.1289/ehp.1409637. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 1–66, PMID: 16520937, 10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00103-5. Sci Total Environ 402–2114, PMID: 19054547, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Environ Int 7–562, PMID: 20452023, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Environ Sci Technol 797–10804, PMID: 22989227, 10.1021/es3028378. MBio 5:e01015–13, PMID: 24713325, 10.1128/m Bio.01015-13. Tamura I, Kagota K, Yasuda Y, Yoneda S, Morita J, Nakada N, et al. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: Triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and -thymol. Triclosan promotes epicutaneous sensitization to peanut in mice. Toxicol Sci 1–64, PMID: 18940961, 10.1093/toxsci/kfn225. of Physics and Astronomy and Environmental Studies Program, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA Anthony Tweedale, MSc, Founder, R. Environ Health Perspect 103–1210, PMID: 18795164, 10.1289/ehp.11200. Am J Public Health 72–1381, PMID: 18556606, 10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610. Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, Della-Latta P, Larson E. Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community. The influence of age and gender on triclosan concentrations in Australian human blood serum. Triclosan: Environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils. Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan®] in human breast milk. uri=CELEX:32016D0110&from=EN [accessed 23 January 2017]. Aquat Toxicol 1–59, PMID: 26440146, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Lassen TH, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, et al. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Photochemical conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environ Sci Technol 7–695, PMID: 16509304, 10.1021/es051380x. Reprod Toxicol –77, PMID: 23261820, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Macherius A, Eggen T, Lorenz W, Moeder M, Ondruschka J, Reemtsma T. Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment. Ye X, Zhou X, Furr J, Ahn KC, Hammock BD, Gray EL, et al. Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. Zorrilla LM, Gibson EK, Jeffay SC, Crofton KM, Setzer WR, Cooper RL, et al. The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. The high persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these dioxins and furans in the environment is well-established (Sinkkonen and Paasivirta 2000; Van den Berg et al. Furthermore, triclosan undergoes conversion to 2,8-dibenzodichloro--dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in water when exposed to natural sunlight (Aranami and Readman 2007; Latch et al. EPA 2001) that is also recognized by the State of California as a developmental toxicant [State of California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) 2017]. Phytoaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban has been observed in certain vegetable crops grown in biosolids-amended soils. One study calculated a terminal plasma half-life of 21h for triclosan (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Blood-borne triclosan and triclocarban can cross the placenta, and triclosan and its metabolites have been detected in umbilical cord blood at birth (Allmyr et al. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their metabolites have also been detected in human milk samples (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol –91, PMID: 23146048, 10.1111/all.12058. Water Res 91–3896, PMID: 12909107, 10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 0–572, PMID: 19822703, 10.1128/AAC.00615-09. Environ Toxicol Chem 83–2492, PMID: 12389930, 10.1002/etc.5620211130. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an urban estuary. Environ Sci Technol 09–3115, PMID: 21381656, 10.1021/es103650m. In biosolids-amended soils, triclocarban and triclosan can persist for extended periods of time while exhibiting very slow or no measurable degradation (Langdon et al. 2008; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2012]. 2017), raising concerns about prenatal exposure to the developing fetus. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54806478e4b0dc44e1698e88/t/5488541fe4b03c0a9b8ee09b/1418220575693/Ntl Biosolids Report-20July07[accessed 17 June 2016]. Bertelsen RJ, Longnecker MP, Løvik M, Calafat AM, Carlsen KH, London SJ, et al. Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Triclosan in a sewage treatment process – Balances and monitoring data. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:9–17, PMID: 15959704, 10.1007/s00244-004-0155-4. Environ Toxicol Chem 55–2563, PMID: 19908930, 0730-7268/09. Chemosphere 38–1243, PMID: 21652055, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Queckenberg C, Meins J, Wachall B, Doroshyenko O, Tomalik-Scharte D, Bastian B, et al. Absorption, pharmacokinetics, and safety of triclosan after dermal administration. An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater treatment plants in the United States. https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_023[accessed 21 June 2016]. Aquat Toxicol 18–454, PMID: 21872556, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Schebb NH, Inceoglu B, Ahn KC, Morisseau C, Gee SJ, Hammock BD. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2003; FDA 2016). Triclosan and triclocarban have been detected in the environment throughout the world. A nationwide survey detected triclosan in ∼60% of U. Sci Total Environ 3–93, PMID: 17007908, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Environmental exposure of aquatic and terrestrial biota to triclosan and triclocarban. Environ Health Perspect 10–396, PMID: 21062687, 10.1289/ehp.1002883. Chemosphere 11–1918, PMID: 17275881, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Environ Int 4–160, PMID: 26292060, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Dhillon GS, Kaur S, Pulicharla R, Brar SK, Cledón M, Verma M, et al. Triclosan: Current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 469–481, 10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch023. Environ Sci Technol 23–8930, PMID: 23865377, 10.1021/es401919k. Reprod Sci 9–127, PMID: 20889956, 10.1177/1933719110382581. Sci Total Environ 45–238, PMID: 24291564, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the female Wistar rat. Toms LM, Allmyr M, Mueller JF, Adolfsson-Erici M, Mc Lachlan M, Murby J, et al. Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia. Allmyr M, Adolfsson-Erici M, Mc Lachlan MS, Sandborgh-Englund G. Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. Algal bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant receiving stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 88–1793, PMID: 18380516, 10.1897/07-374.1. Reprod Toxicol 7–613, PMID: 23059059, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Den Hond E, Tournaye H, De Sutter P, Ombelet W, Baeyens W, Covaci A, et al. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients. Triclosan exposure increases triclosan resistance and influences taxonomic composition of benthic bacterial communities. Effects of triclocarban on intact immature male rat: Augmentation of androgen action. Macherius A, Lapen DR, Reemtsma T, Römbke J, Topp E, Coors A. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application. J Appl Toxicol 22–1229, PMID: 22806922, 10.1002/jat.2771. Clin Transl Allergy 6, PMID: 27051518, 10.1186/s13601-016-0102-2. J Chromatogr A 14–44, PMID: 26948762, 10.1016/j.chroma.20. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). https://gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5210a1[accessed 17 June 2016]. Chen J, Ahn KC, Gee NA, Ahmed MI, Duleba AJ, Zhao L, et al. Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: A new type of endocrine disruptor? Ding SL, Wang XK, Jiang WQ, Meng X, Zhao RS, Wang C, et al. Photodegradation of the antimicrobial triclocarban in aqueous systems under ultraviolet radiation. Toxicol Sci 17–139, PMID: 26048654, 10.1093/toxsci/kfv113. Mc Avoy DC, Schatowitz B, Jacob M, Hauk A, Eckhoff WS. Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems. Contaminants of emerging concern in a large temperate estuary. Environ Health Perspect 133–1041, PMID: 19654909, 10.1289/ehp.0800247. J Hazard Mater 16–772, PMID: 20727675, 10.1016/j.jhazmat.20. Alvarez-Rivera G, Llompart M, Garcia-Jares C, Lores M. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin. J Am Water Works Assoc 45:4–13, PMID: 20046971, 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00284.x. The impact of bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the U. Int J Environ Res Public Health 57–5684, PMID: 26006133, 10.3390/ijerph120505657. Marshall NB, Lukomska E, Long CM, Kashon ML, Sharpnack DD, Nayak AP, et al. Triclosan induces thymic stromal lymphopoietin in skin promoting Th2 allergic responses. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25–6033, PMID: 24464075, 10.1007/s11356-013-2474-3. Thyroid-disrupting chemicals: interpreting upstream biomarkers of adverse outcomes. Identification of wastewater bacteria involved in the degradation of triclocarban and its non-chlorinated congener. Toxicol Sci 1–53, PMID: 20562219, 10.1093/toxsci/kfq180. Chemosphere 82–1686, PMID: 22000243, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20.

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